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The Temple of Bel at Palmyra

In 2015, ISIS terrorists destroyed the Temples of Bel and Baalshemin in the Syrian desert city of Palmyra, temples which had remained in pristine condition since their city's glory days in the 3rd century.

Back then, under the capable leadership of its rulers Odenaethus and the "Warrior Queen" Zenobia, Palmyra rose from wealthy caravan town to leader of the Eastern Mediterranean, taking advantage of the chaos of the Roman Crisis of the Third Century. So. Many. Emperors. So. Much. Chaos.

Scott Chesworth from the Ancient World podcast returns to finish his tale of Roman Syria, discussing how Palmyra challenged two empires, and how they very nearly pulled it off.

Also, listener David Adam recounts his trip to Palmyra before the temples were destroyed; you'll appreciate how he brings the humanity of modern Syrians into the story.

The destruction of Palmyra and of Syria has been a great human catastrophe, and by acknowledging and remembering lost Palmyra, we might hope to prevent the next one.

Also, there are cookies! Date-filled cookies, in honor of the date palms that gave Palmyra its name.

Below are David Adam's photos from his travels to Palmyra:

Syrian flatbread "pizzas" being cooked

Columns being repurposed for the walls of the fortress

The view from the citadel at sunset

The Syrian family Dave met among the ruins

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